Chicago Style Citation: The General Rules

Similar to other academic paper formats, Chicago style has specific requirements. It covers many aspects of academic writing, including bibliography and citations. Unlike other styles, Chicago format gives the authors the note-bibliography citation system. What does it mean?  In this article, we will explain how to use this approach and cite necessary sources in Chicago style.

Citations in Chicago style

In the note-bibliography method, sources are cited through numbered notes. In other words, if you want to make reference to a book or an article, you should create a note which matches a raised (so-called superscript) number after quotation or paraphrase. Citation numbers are arranged in sequential order where each raised number attributes to a numbered reference in the endnotes or footnotes.

Footnotes are arranged at the foot of each page that they are connected to. On the contrary, endnotes must be compiled at the end of the text, on an endnotes list. This page should be entitled Notes and appear right before the bibliography page.

Here is how it should look.

Superscript in the text: …a persistent challenge to “nationalism’s foundations in American and intellectual territory.”¹

Footnote: 1. Pauline Turner Strong and Barik Van Winkle, “Tribe and Nation: American Indians and American Nationalism,” Social Analysis 33 (September 1993): 9.

If you cite something for the first time, you should mention the full name of the author or authors, title, place of publication, year, and, finally, cited pages. Then you may use shortened notes.

Bibliography in Chicago style

The bibliography should start on a separate page, at the end of the paper. Type the word Bibliography, then place and center it at the top of your page. The bibliography should cover all sources quoted in the text. Sometimes it also includes relevant works that were used but not cited.